The park’s hot thermal pools contain a special heat-resistant enzyme which can survive at almost boiling temperatures making it crucial to virus testing in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, medics take a swab and multiply the DNA millions of times to create a sample large enough to test.
The DNA must be repeatedly heated and cooled. This was once time-consuming and difficult and damaged DNA’s fragile enzymes. But thanks to Thermus aquatics, it can now be done in hours.
A scientist and his student discovered the bacteria in the mid-1960s while investigating strange growths at Yellowstone’s Mushroom Spring. PCR tests are considered the ‘gold standard’ of testing. They’ve been key to test-and-trace, many countries now require them on entry.
PCR is also used in prenatal testing early disease diagnosis and DNA detection at crime scenes. All thanks to a tiny organism from Yellowstone Park. Nature potentially holds millions of undiscovered solutions to other health challenges.
Despite the morbid nicknames, this crimson phenomenon is a colorful sign of blossoming life, produced by tiny organisms that have colonized snowy mountain habitats.
The eerie biological dye goes by many names- watermelon snow or red snow, for instance – and it is common on mountain tops and glaciers around the world, from the Sierra Nevada, to the Himalayas to Greenland’s ice sheets.
WHAT CAUSES ‘BLOOD SNOW’?
The odd reddish hue is caused by green algae. Algae is one of the most diverse and ubiquitous forms of life on Earth, so it’s not particularly surprising that it has managed to find its way to some of the highest peaks in the world.
However, the climate crisis is accelerating snowmelt and glacial retreat in these habitats, a trend that may upend many algal colonies and the larger ecosystems that rely on them.
Green algae are green, as the name implies, but warmer triggers them to produce a red carotenoid pigment as a kind of sunscreen.
WHAT CAN SCIENTISTS LEARN FROM IT?
European scientists have banded together to form ALPALGA, a collaboration that aims to better understand these Alpine algae, which can act as primary producers, pioneer species, and “potential markers of climate change,” according to a study published Monday in Frontiers in Plant Science.
“I’ve seen, in my lifetime, the disappearnce of ecosystems on a scale not of 100 years, but decades,” said study author Eric Maréchal, director of the Cell and Plant Physiology Laboratory, a joint unit of CNRS, CEA, INRA and University Grenoble Alpes, in a call. “This ecosystem is super fragile.”
In 2013, the world’s most traveled mouse sperm set out on a mission to the international Space Station (ISS). The freeze-dried sperm was transported back to Earth in a SpaceX cargo spacecraft in 2019 after nearly six years in the station and has been used to birth healthy “space pups.”
A team of Japanese researchers ran the space sperm tests, results of which have been published in the journal Science Advances. This was done to understand the long-term effects of space radiation on mammalian sperm. The freeze-dried sperm were transferred to the ISS, where they spent nearly six years.
Male mice sperm collected and deposited in ampules (small glass vials) before being freeze-dried to eliminate the water. The Scientists kept these sperms in the ISS and freezers on Earth at the same time.
The sperm were rehydrated once they were returned, and the space pups were compared to“ground control” pups after the females delivered their litters. The team in a statement wrote that the Space pups showed no changes compared to ground control pups.
The researchers also looked at DNA damage and gene expression in space sperm to see if they were different from sperm preserved on Earth. Under a microscope, space sperm appeared to be identical to those on Earth, and the researchers found no additional DNA damage in space sperm exposed to radiation.
“Space wants to kill you” is a catchphrase that is frequently used. Space radiation Pierces almost everything in the universe, and if it isn’t shielded, it can clash with DNA. The researchers found no evidence of DNA damage in the freeze-dried sperm, which is a significant accomplishments.
The freeze-drying technique, which eliminates water from sperm samples, might have had a protective impact against DNA damage. However, because the ISS is so close to the Earth, the Planet’s magnetic field protects it from particularly hazardous space radiation. It’s unclear whether deep space exploration will cause greater problems for freeze-dried sperm.
The “Gateway,” a space station that will orbit the moon and serve as on Outpost for human travel deeper into the solar system is being developed. The researchers suggest the freeze-dried sperm tests might be carried out on the gateway to investigate the effect of space radiation far from Earth in their concluding remarks.
Knowello Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the richest temple in the world.
Kerala’s Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple reportedly sits on ~1trn+(~€73 lakh Crore) of wealth, accumulated by the Travancore Kingdom.
In 2011, 5 of its 6 vaults were opened on the Supreme Court’s order.
Piles of jewels, bags of gold, some weighing over 800Kg and a diamond-laded throne etc, worth RS 1.6 lakh Cr+, were unearthed.
The temple is now detected by metal detectors, cameras & 200+ guards, some of whom carry guns.
Still, in 2017, gold worth RS 189Cr and eight antique diamonds were reported stolen, stirring controversy.
The Travancore royal family manages the temple and says the riches “belong to God.”
Questions have been raised over the management of the temple. In 2009, am ex-police officer field a case in the Kerala High Court, alleging mismanagement of assets by the erstwhile royal family.
TRAVANCORE ROYAL FAMILY
Last year, the descendants of the Travancore royal family retained control of the temple after a Supreme control of the temple after a Supreme Court hearing. This overturned a Kerala High Curt’s 2011 order that gave the powers to Kerala govt.
Most of us find ourselves turning to Google to find out what our symptoms mean, even if it just a headache, only to be greeted with the list of worst possible diseases with the worst possible outcomes.
You aren’t the only one, each year Google sees almost 10 billion searches related to skin, nail and hair issues. About 2 Billion people worldwide suffer from dermatologic issues, but there’s a global shortage of specialists. Google isn’t a doctor but it is planning to use its AI to become better at helping us.
While many people’s first step involves going to a Google search bar, it can be difficult to describe that what you’re seeing on your skin through words alone. This is where AI would step in. Google unveiled a trial “dermatology assist tool”, at its annual developer conference, Google IO.
Users will be able to self-diagnose issues ranging from acne to melanoma by uploading images of their medical condition via the Derm Assist website and answer questions about their symptoms.
An AI model will analyse the information and give a list of possible conditions. The AI has been fed with millions of images of skin problems, thousands of images of healthy skin, and 65,000 images from clinical settings. It takes factors like age, skin type, sex, and race into account when suggesting possible conditions.
To determine the effectiveness, it was tested on around 1,000 images ok skin problems uploaded by patients and Google claims it identified the correct condition in the top three suggestions 84% of the time. It included the correct condition as one of the possible issues 97% of the time.
Google hopes this tool can help get people accurate information about potential conditions, quickly, without having to spend hours doing their own online research. The web tool is slated to launch later this year.
Berlin is one of the trendiest cities in Europe and has a huge scope in academic sector. It is also really cheap to live here. Tuition fees are free in Berlin and you can also get scholarship from its government, The average fees per semester is around Rs. 4000-9000/- per semester depending on the university.
02. COPENHAGEN, DENMARK:
Thanks to its standard living, low-crime rate and good academic sector, this city has one of the best Universities of Europe. Many University’s Tuition fees free or at cheap rate. Also, students can do part-time jobs to earn more income.
03. STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN:
Stockholm is painfully stylist, effortlessly cool. English is the basic language spoken in Universities. It is also home to many large companies in whole Europe, means there’s huge opportunities for jobs. But it isn’t cheapest place to study, you need to manage your budget according to college.
04. VIENNA, AUSTRIA:
Vienna is a city well known in increasing number of master’s courses being offered in English. This city is hub for international students. Thee average tution fees is 50k, but it is free for many developed country students. Students in this city get free pass for museums, huge offers on public transport and many more facilities.
05. AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS:
Some universities here, don’t charge Tuition fees, but the top Universities of this city have Low-cost Tuition fees. Government of this city also provide financial support for international students.
If you live in US, Canada or Mexico you will find something strange about channel number 37 doesn’t exist but somehow connected to aliens!
You might have realised there is no signal or the channel number 37 is not found (for US citizens). There’s a gap between channel number 36 and 38! Isn’t it strange?
In 1952, the US opened up the television system that used a technology called UHF signals, causing the total number of TV channel to increase to 2000. But the channel number 37 was not on the list.
WHAT COULD BE THE REASON?
A engineer Karl Jansky discovered some strange signals in the channel 37. He found that the signal was coming not from Earth, but rather from the center of our galaxy! He had made the first detection of a signal of extraterrestrial origin.
It is said that the signal was intentionally send to earth for the aliens to communicate with us. The signal was different in nature and was creating problems with other devices that time.
Later the channel was kept under silence to understand the mystery behind the signal. For this a 400 feet radio telescope was built to communicate with the aliens.
In the 1950’s it was revealed that people experienced voices coming from the channel, during late night. Some even suffered mental issues and headache on channel 37. Many said that their channel was changed to number 37 without using the remote. Spooky!
Many theorists says that aliens or secret government organization uses this channel 37 to communicate with each other or even mess with audience’s minds!
From the 1918 influenza epidemic with 17-100 million deaths. To the ongoing COVID-19, which has killed 3.4 million so far viruses have often shaken the human civilization. If people were given a choice to magically kill all viruses most of them would say, yes! But that would be mistake deadlier than the virus because without viruses, we’ll all die in some time.
There are Millions of viruses out there on earth and not all viruses are pathogenic to humans many viruses play integral roles in building ecosystems. For example, Phages is a type of Virus kills that kills bacteria and controls the bacterial population on the ocean. Phages works by infecting bacteria with its genes which results in bacteria bursting and dying out. Without viruses, these bacteria would grow uncontrolled and endanger the oxygen producing plankton in the ocean which produces 50 to 80 percent of all Earth’s Oxygen.
These viruses kill about 20% of all oceanic microbes and about 50% of all oceanic bacteria, each day. By culling microbes, viruses provide enough nutrients to Plankton which then produces oxygen at high rates of photosynthesis and ultimately sustain most of life on the land Earth.
An adult human brain weighs about 3 pounds about 75% of which is made up of water. The brain uses 20% of the total oxygen in blood if it doesn’t get oxygen for 5-6 minutes, it won’t survive. There are 100 billion neurons present in the brain. Neurons works as the information carriers they move information from one part to another producing enough electrical signal to power a small light bulb.
Some people believe that we use only 10% of the brain and if we can use the remaining 90% brain we would be able to do superhuman activities. Well, it’s just a myth. Scientists who study brain activity have found the we use virtually every part of the brain and most of it is active almost all the time. Some parts of the brain might be working harder than others but we utilize almost all of the brain.
Pitch Black planet, Absorbs 99.3% of its sun’s light.
2. PLANET GLIESE 436B:
Continuously evaporating at super-high temperature and it also has a comet-like tail.
3. PLANET KEPLER-10B:
Surface covered with Lava Oceans.
4. PLANET METHUSELAH:
Oldest known planet to humans. 13 billion years old. It can also have extraterrestrial life.
5. PLANET HD 106906:
It’s a mystery planet with 11 times bigger than our Jupiter. The distance between this planet and its star is 20 times distance between Neptune and Sun but still its temperature if around 1500 degrees and it glows mysteriously.
Currently, there is a tense situation between Israel and Hamas (a Palestine nationalist organisation). Hamas aim to get back Jerusalem (Capital of Israel) and this area is the root of all violence. This fight is not new, but this time it’s at the extreme. It’s believed that violence broke because Jews forced Palestine to leave Jerusalem.
Few days ago, Hamas attacked some parts of Israel with rockets but only few touched ground rest were destroyedin the air by Israel’s anti-missile system. Soon, Israel did airstrikes on Gaza Strip (the area where Palestine live).
In 1948, Israel was formed as a nation. But Middle Eastern Countries never accepted Israel. After a long dispute, it was decided that the Western part of Jerusalem will be occupied by Israel and the Eastern part of Jerusalem will be occupied by Jordan. In this way, Jerusalem was divided but this was a temporary division.
In 1967, Israel went into a war with Syria, Jordan and Palestine. Israel occupied the Eastern part of Jerusalem (which was previously occupied by Jordan). And since then Palestine and Israel are against each other for this land.
Israel says that whole is their capital whereas Palestine sees the Eastern part of the Jerusalem as their future capital. In short, this whole was is just for land of Jerusalem. It’s the same place where Al-Aqsa Mosque is located where recently violence took place. Now understand why Jerusalem is so important.
Jerusalem plays a very important role for three major religion: Christianity, Islam and Jews. For christians, this is the same place where Jesus Christ was Crucified, also it’s the same place where Jesus Resurrected.
For Islam, after Makkah and Madinah, Al-Aqsa Mosque is the third most important mosque which is located in Jerusalem. Also, Prophet Muhammad travelled from Makkah to Jerusalem and prayed with the soul of other prophets.
For Jews, this is the same place from where all creation began. It’s the same place where Abraham (a prophet who was the first person too teach the idea that there was only one God) sacrificed his son Issac. So Jerusalem plays a very important in all three religion And all the controversies began due to this.
Recently the US officials unearthed some documents written by Chinese military scientists in 2015. It’s titled ‘The Unnatural Origin of SARS and New Species Man-Made Viruses as genetic Bioweapons.’ this document talks about weaponizing the Coronavirus and how World War 3 could be fought with biological weapons. Chinese Scientists called it ‘A New Era of Genetic Weapons.’
How SARS could be manipulated to be human disease virus causing a ‘Chilling’ Psychological terror. The document was given to cyber security specialist they said, ‘We reached high confidence that its genuine.’
But there are few things that we need to understand here this doesn’t mean China released the virus upon the world. This documents comes with another possibility which is that Chinese military was develop the virus and it could have accidentally leaked it from the Lab. Acc. to Biological Weapons convention, it’s illegal to create bioweapons. If guilty, China will never let world agencies do a proper investigation and that’s already happening.
Every time a woman has her periods, it’s because her body was preparing to get pregnant and have a child. It starts with ovaries, which contains over 1,00,000 eggs. Once a month, one egg will release which takes three days to reach the uterus.
Now while the egg travels to the Uterus, the Uterus begins to prepare itself with all the nutrients requires a start a new life. During this Ovaries also increases the production of estrogen and progesterone hormones. These hormones help in protecting those nutrients requires for life but
They also enter the bloodstream, travelling throughout the body including the brain, where they mess up with other chemicals and causes PMS or Premenstrual Syndrome, which causes mood swings. But mood swings can happen even when a woman is not on her periods.
That’s because PMS happens 7-14 days before bleeding when the level of estrogen and progesterone is at a peak. 50-80% woman have experienced physical or psychological PMS, but many aren’t aware that it can occur even before periods. Psychological symptoms such as mood changes (anger, crying, irritation, or wanting to kill someone)
Physical symptoms can include headache, difficulty sleeping, upset stomach or sickness. But when the period begins, these hormones level drop sharply. When the body realizes that there is no fertilisation, that nutrients and all made by the Uterus come out as bleeding, and this cycle on and on.
In September 2007, a spacecraft called “FOTON-M3” carried Tardigrades, Earth’s toughest creatures into low earth orbit. For 10 days, these creatures were exposed to the hard vaccum of outer space and solar UV radiation.
It was nothing short of a miracle when they were brought back on earth. Over 68% of the subjects had survived, becoming only animal to survive in outer space.
These unique creatures, also known as “water bears”, are water-dwelling eight-legged, segmented micro-animals that have been found everywhere on earth, from mountaintops to the deep sea and mud volcanoes, surviving under extreme conditions.
Known to be one of the most resilient animals on earth, Tardigrades can survive air deprivation, radiation, starvation, and even dehydration – all that would kill most other known forms of life in a fraction of seconds.
What makes them sturdy is their special state called Cryptobiosis where they shed almost all the water in their body and their metabolism slows down to 0.01% of the normal rate, making them nearly indestructible. They can be brought back to life even after decades of being hydrated.
Owning to these unique capabilities, they were selected for another space mission in 2019. But things took a wild turn in this time. Beresheet, the Israeli spacecraft on mission, crashed on the moon, spilling thousands of dehydrated Tardigrades that Scientists had loaded onto the lander.
It remains uncertain whether the Earth’s toughest animal survived the crash or not but the co-founder of the organisation that put them on the lander believes the water-bears would have survived the crash, and in future, if humans ever find them, they would possibly still be alive.
The creature is being studied across the globe. Researchers believe the secret to its resilience may help in cancer treatment, as well as in futuristic research such as human hibernation and space travel. It might help in making people going to mars more resistant to radiation.
While humans are still trying to figure out ways to survive in hostile conditions, for all we know Tardigrades might already be taking over the moon.
Don’t worry, Soon you would be able to record your dreams and watching them in the morning.
A neuroscientist at Northwestern University created a device that would be implaneted in your brain to measure your brain activity while you dream.
When you dream, your body paralyzes completely. Let’s say, in your dream, you are running away from a dinosaur. Your brain sends a signal to your legs to run, but you can’t do it as you are completely paralyzed!
The device collects your brain activity and sends it to an AI. Then that AI pictures what you are dreaming and creates a final scenario of your dream.
Scientists have successfully Experimented with this, but the recorded dream was not so clear. But, soon with advanced technology within 10 years, you will have your own dream cinema!
The universe seems to to have achieved something the anti-aging creams have been trying to achieve for a long time: getting hotter with each passing day. Jokes apart – the universe is actually getting hotter as it gets older.
The Ribbons of gas and dust trying all the galaxies are growing hotter over time. Astronomers assess these ribbons using a phenomenon known as the Sunyaev – Zeldovich effect, which is a powerful way of indirectly measuring a cluster’s density connected by the cosmic ribbons of gas.
Measuring the temperature of these ribbons makes it possible for us to determine the temperature of the universe in different eras. The astronomers have observed that these cosmic ribbons are three times hotter than they were 8 billion years ago.
When clusters of galaxies are observed with microwaves, they show a hole where the cluster is. This is the result of hot, dense material at the center of clusters scattering the microwave photons of the background radiation from the big bang up to higher frequencies.
The materials that connects the galaxies is known as the cosmic net. As everything clumped together, the gravitational influence became stronger which further generated more gas.
As the Universe evolves, gravity will pull more dark matter and gas together into galaxies and their clusters. This pull is so violent that the gas is shocked and heated up. Therefore, there is a rise in heat as the universe gets older.
From large scale manufacturing of goods to exploring other planets, robots have helped make our lives much easier. Another area where there is a vast emerging market for robots in the delivery of goods.
From sanitized storage to heated compartments for food, a robot delivery van has some obvious benefits. One of the most famous pizza chains in the world, Domino’s, is trying to cash on these benefits.
According to reports, Domino’s Pizza and Nuro, a silicon Valley startup, have announced that they will soon launch a robotic pizza delivery service in Houston. Texas, to increase online orders.
With small, low-speed vehicles to carry packages instead of people, Nuro has been pulling ahead of other autonomous vehicle startup in gaining regulatory approvals. It won US clearance last year to start unmanned delivery services.
The delivery service will begin at a Domino’s Houston outlet before expanding to serve customers in many other locations. Customers will get texts with information about the vehicle’s location and a pin to enter.
Delivery robots have been making quite a buzz over the world. Countries such as the United States, Japan, China and several other European countries already that have significant number of services that use autonomous delivery robots for last mile deliveries.
In India, Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) gave the official nod to delivery companies like Zomato, Swiggy and Dunzo to begin testing beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) drones for deliveries.
One of the country’s largest e-commerce players, Snapdeal, announced in 2020 that it has successfully tested robots for e-commerce deliveries. Snapdeal has partnered with autonomous mobility startup Ottonomy IO to deliver ‘sanitized’ packages, according to reports.
During the test run in Delhi NCR, the robots were placed at the gates of residential societies, where a delivery exceutive placed parcels in a compartment inside the robot. The robot then used maps to deliver the goods at the customer’s doorstep.
In some parts of the world – especially in Latin America, Africa, Asia – washing clothes at the riverbanks is still a widespread practice because of tradition and lack of running water at the homes or millions of people.
However, using laundry soap can pollute the same water that people are rely on for drinking, cooking or bathing. The soaps and detergents used in laundry also affect marine life as they contain phosphates, enhancing the growth of algae in the water bodies.
The algae then compete for oxygen with other aquatic animals and ultimately lead to a challenging living environment for marine animals. Hence pouring laundry waste into water bodies leads to eutrophication.
To tackle such challenges, Peruvian company Fahrenheit DDB and a startup called Cirsys have come up with a probiotic soap designed to help clean the rivers instead of polluting them.
“The idea is very simple: take advantage of the Andean cultural heritage of washing their clothes in the rivers, so the rivers can be cleaned,” Ricardo Chadwick, partner and creative director at the creative agency Fahrenheit DDB, mentioned in a statement.
The partners spent two years developing a solution – a bar soap that contains microorganisms that can remove pollution. According to them, the microorganisms feeds itself from the river’s pollution, reducing the levels of nitrates and ammoniac, the type responsible for spreading bacteria that affect humans.
The makers mentioned that in before and after samples taken of river water, the soap helped remove pollutants like nitrates with 75-85% efficiency, making it a compatible solution to clean both pollution from other laundry soap and sewage that also ends up in rivers.
The air we breathe contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Most commerical oxygen is producing using the cryogenic distillation process. This process produces oxygen that is 99+ pure.
In this, the gas plant takes in air from the atmosphere into a compresser and pass it through a chamber which decreases its temperature up to -200°C. New from is cold compressed gas, first of all, carbon dioxide is separated out as Dry ice.
Now, this cold air is changed from gas to liquid form. The further this liquid form is sent to the Air Distillation column, where nitrogen argon and other gases are separated.
Only oxygen in liquid from is left behind. This liquid Oxygen is collected in a cryogenic vessel or tank. Which is transferred to hospitals. Before the Pandemic oxygen production was 7000 metric tonnes per day and demand was 900 metric tonnes per day. But now
Production is 7800 metric tonnes per day whereas demand is 5500-5800 metric tonnes per day that’s 544% more. However, the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) said it would be setting up 500 medical oxygen plants in the country under the PM cares fund.
We’re here for that and today we meet Lina Medina who became a mother at an unbelievable age!
All the doctors and Nurses at Pisco’s Hospital in Peru were still not believing the news of this little girl aged five years, seven months and 21 days who gave birth through C-section in 1938 to a healthy baby boy.
Lina Medina’s parents brought her to the hospital when she was almost 5 due to increasing abdominal size which was initially thought to be a tumor. Doctors were shocked to discover that she was actually 7 months pregnant.
Born in 1933 in Peru in a family of 9 children, Medina is reported to have had her first period when she was only 8 months old! Which is, to this day, the youngest documented case of precocious puberty. Also, she holds the title for the youngest confirmed mother in history.
Lina Medina’s baby, Gerardo was a wealthy newborn and weighed 6.0 lb when she, herself weighed only 40 lbs. Untill the age of 10, he was made to believe that she was his sister. This is the only picture we have of them together in their youth where Lina is 23 and Gerardo is 18. Gerardo lived untill his 40’s and died of a bone disease.
But, WHO’S THE FATHER?
No matter how interesting Lina Medina’s Story is, it remains a sad and traumatic case of child sexual abuse. In the begining of the case, Lina’s father was arrested but he was released due to lack of evidence. Those who worked with Lina suggest that she might not know herself as the couldn’t give precise responses.
This this day, Lina who is aged 86, refuses to reveal the identity if the father. DNA techniques were unfortunately not available neither when her son was still alive. So, we might never know.
Up the present time, no other case of such extreme precious child pregnancy has been documented.
As the nation grapples with the second wave of Covid-19, we are headed into phase three strategy of vaccination, under which all the people above 18 years of age will be eligible to get Covid-19 vaccine does from May 1.
When the registrations opened on April 28, the CoWin portal received traffic of about 27 lakh hits per minute and the servers crashed temporarily. As many as one crore indians registered on the portal in just four hours, said Abhishek Singh, CEO, MyGov.
But the enthusiasm has been met with a shortage of vaccine supply. Mumbai has shut its vaccination drive for 3 days from today, citing lack of adequate doses. Several states, including Punjab, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, have also said that they do not have sufficient doses of vaccine for the 18-44 age group.
WHEN IT COMES TO VACCINATING THE ENTIRE NATION, HOW MUCH WOULD IT COST?
The government of India (Gol) had earmarked Rs 35,000 crores for the vaccination program in the FY21-22 Budget. But the actual cost is way more than this amount.
A study India Ratings and Research (Ind-Ra) has pegged the overall cost of vaccinating all Indians above 18 years of age against COVID-19 at Rs 67,193 crores (which works out to be just 0.365 of the GDP), of which states together will incur Rs 46,323 crore.
To break it down, India had 88 crore voters in the 2019 general elections, which can be used as a proxy for the population above the age of 18. While the centre will foot the bill for 45-plus age groups and health care/Frontline workers, the states and private sector will have to foot the bill for 18-44 age groups.
Serum Institute of India has priced the vaccination at Rs 300 per dose for states, bringing it down from Rs 400 per dose, and Bharat Biotech too, has slashed the price of its Covaxin from Rs 600 to Rs 400 per dose.
However, for the private sector, Serum has priced the vaccine at Rs 600 per dose, while Bharat has priced it at Rs 1,200 per dose. Several states, including Delhi, Orissa, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Haryana, West Bengal, have offered free vaccination for the 18-44 age group.
Scientists are still trying to understand COVID damages not only to the body, but also the brain in long term. Several COVID survivors have reported brain-related symptoms such as headaches, confusion, hallucinations and delirium. Some even reported depression, anxiety and sleep problems mostly within 6 months of being infected with the virus.
In a recent study, Scientists took 236,000 COVID-19 survivors and studied their health records in last 6 months 1 in 3 survivor reported the brain related problems. Scientists further figured out that these symptoms are due to leaky blood vessels and inflammation in some parts of the brain. So if you’re having brain related issues, Anxiety or hallucinations please see a doctor as soon as possible.
Researchers from the UK and Germany were able to implant a false memory in people’s minds and reversed them easily.
The researchers took 52 participants for the experiment. With the help of parents, they implanted two false – negative memories that definitely didn’t happen in reality. For example getting lost, running away, or being involved in a car accident.
With 2 false memory, researchers implanted two true memory that actually happened in their life. After some time, researchers called participants one-by-one and asked them to recall all the memories and they talked to participants in a very aggressive way.
At first, participants recalled and described two true memories perfectly. And they also recalled and described those 2 false memories too that never happened in their life.
Participants felt that those false memories really happened in their life! They were able to describe it completely. Researchers then confirmed that they’d successfully developed false memory into 52 people’s minds.
Later, Researchers undo those false memories. but, this technique can used for false confession of crimes!
Sometimes we go through a combination of Hungry and Angry called “hangry”. It’s the sensation of hunger combined with negative emotions, usually anger or frustration. When you haven’t eaten for a while, the level of sugar (glucose) in your blood decreases. When yourblood sugar levels gets too low.
It triggers several hormones, including stresshormone and fight or flight hormone. These hormones are released into your bloodstream to rebalance your blood sugar. This can cause aggression in some people.
DID YOU KNOW:
Asia is the largest Rice producing continent in the world. out of the top 10-rice producing countries around the world, 9 countries are from Asia. First is china and the second is India but still, 1/8 Asia don’t have enough food to feed they are still hungry.
Over one-third of our hungry people are innocent children who are members of households that simply can’t provide enough food to them. They are around us. They ask for money, it’s you choice whether you want to give money or not, but please make sure they don’t sleep hungry that night.
Tears are omnipresent in our eyes. Al last 7 microliters (1/10 of a water droplet) of tears keep our eyes fresh and hydrated. However, tears aren’t just salty water but have nutrients which nourish and clean our delicate eyes; similar to filtered blood without haemoglobin.
But Scientists have observed but apart from several proteins, tears also contain remnantsof biochemicals originally in blood, which can indicate illnesses like glucose to diabetes. Studies also show that markers of diseases like Parkinson’s, cystic fibrosis, cancer, multiple sclerosis, etc. Are present in tears.
In March 2020, TearExo a new technology was developed by Kobe University, Japan to detect breast cancer from Exosomes (extracellular vesicles) as biomarkers, which are present in tears. If this technology develops further, the potential benefits outweigh the detriments.
Till date, physicians rely on blood tests and various other examinations to analyse a patient’s health. However, testing tears will be cheaper, more efficient and what not! Researchers are developing a type of antibody test for COVID-19 since the virus RNA was found in tears as well.
If tear testing soon manifests into reality, then a diagnosis is no longer a tiresome journey. It also means that several people dying of diseases due to financial inadequacies for testing and treatment will be saved too!
Plastic Pollution has been one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Because plastics do not break down to a natural, environmentaly safe condition over time by biological processes, they pose a risk to the environment and ultimately the well-being of living beings.
According to 2019 data by the Central Pollution Control Board, India alone generates 25,940 tons of plastic Easter every day but collects only 60 percent of it. The remaining 40% ends up choking drains and littering soil and marine ecosystems.
In a significant breakthrough, Scientists in the US have come up with a unique solution. Rather than replacing it with other materials, the Scientists have found a way to make Plastic biodegradable.
By including plastic-eating enzymes right into the Plastic itself, the researchers have created the first truly biodegradable Plastic that breaks down within a few weeks when exposed to heat and water.
According to the research published in the journal Nature, the enzymes involved convert the plastic into lactic acid, which can then be used to enrich soil microbes. Researchers have found that the enzyme wrappers also breakdown when exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
The researchers also mentioned that this particular plastic does not create microplastic and that nearly 98 Percent of it degrades into small molecules.
On 14 June 1911 a train named Zanetti ran from Rome. There were 106 passengers.
To reach its destination, the train had to pass through a dark tunnel about 1 km long. But the surprising thing was that this train went in from one end of that tunnel but never returned from the other end.
At first, people thought that the train might have got stuck inside the tunnel, but when Railway officers checked the tunnel, there was no sign of train and no people. It was like train never passed through tunnel.
But, before the train went into the tunnel, 2 passengers jumped off the train. They told the officers like they felt something wrong in those tunnel and strange noise was coming, so they both jumped off.
The Roman Railways, cautiously, closed this tunnel from both sides. Later, the relatives of one of the passengers, found a report in the archive records of 1926 that shocked everyone.
According to the report, in 1845, 104 people were admitted to a mental asylum in Mexico. Nobody knew who these 104 people were end where they came from, but the startling thing was that all 104 People told they were from Rome.
The statement of these people and the incident of the Zanetti train in 1911 exactly coincided with the passengers. But the surprising thing was that the incident which was formed in 1911,
Then how can the victims of that incident get admitted to a mental institution in 1845?
How can a train travel such a long way through water?
While examining the statements of these 104 Italians, when the list of water ships and their passengers from Rome to Mexico was checked, not a single person was mentioned in that list from these 104 strangers.
One of these Italian people also found a Tabaco box. On which the company name was written with sun 1907. Even today, Mexico has seized this box. So where did this Mysterious train disappear from that tunnel? This thing remains a puzzle even today.
But this gohest train has been seen many times till date in many parts of Russia, India, Germany, Italy, Romania. When this ghost train was sighted in poltava in 1991, a paranormal investigator who was there, boarded it and disappeared forever.
Over the years, efforts to find extremely low-mass black holes have increased significantly in recent years, so we could soon learn much more about these mysterious astronomical objects.
Astronomers have found one blackhole candidate that qualifies the requirements and could indeed attract the attention of the whole scientific community in the years to come.
The black hole, dubbed “Unicorn,” is located in the constellation of Monoceros, right next to a red giant star named V723 Mon, and it appears to have a mass three times that of the sun and it is being deemed tiny!
The former record holder for the smallest black hole is 3.3 solar masses, and the previous nearest black hole is twice as far away as the Unicorn. That means Unicorn might just be the smallest black hole ever detected and the closest one to Earth found so far.
Astronomers discovered the Unicorn by studying the impact on its companion object. Its light seemed to change intensity at various points in its orbit, implying that it was being stretched into unusual shape by the gravity of something nearby. The Ohio State University notes.
Since it lacked a visible star companion, a black hole seemed to be the most probable candidate. Astronomers estimated the black hole’s mass to be three Suns by measuring the star’s gravitational distortion, velocity, and orbit period. Now, the newly found black hole candidate may set a new record or two!
Just one pill, and every information of your body including disease, infections, vitamin deficiency, everything will be display on your Laptop/Mobile. Scientist have designed a pill than have sensors, and transmit the information on your devices.
02. CONNECTED SMART CLOTHES:
Imagine you walk to a mall and try on pieces of connected clothes, sensors in the clothes collect your exact measurements and smart mirrors in front of you allow you to change clothes you are trying on: size, color, pattern, length etc. Amazon has been developing Smart mirrors for 3-D Clothing models.
03. HAPTIC – HOLOGRAPHY:
This will be next mind-blowing technology. “Mutual Touching,” where you can reach out and physically touch hologram. You will also feel the sensation in return. Researching are working on this project, so that medical students can gain experience by performing holographic surgery with real sensation.
04. COMPANY CEO AS AI MACHINE:
If you are a CEO’s, cannot take a quicker decision, you can be out of a job by the chief AI officer, who can perform millions of calculation and possibilities for company’s future.
05. NO TRAFFIC LIGHTS:
AI along with connected EV vehicle will make this possible. In 2012, researchers suggested a system where vehicles communicate with one another and an AI system this reducing accidents and traffic jams.
06. 4-D PRINTING:
Using the 4D printing technology, it would be possible to use the product when it is out immediately from the printer with no other parts or assembly required. It can be also used to build human organs like Ears, fingers etc. With higher sustainability.
Birds to have set their priorities straight because they open their beaks for a tune only attract a mate or to get high. There’s is nothing else worth singing for!
The recent study conducted by biologists at the University of Wisconsin has revealed that birds that Sing are high on opioids, and their song sounds like “free form jazz.” They order, reorder, repeat song sequences and even add and drop notes. For their chorus at dawn, they even experiment with different.
Scientists discovered that birds actively sang when they were in flocks, associating emotions of joy with singing. To reconfirm this, they exposed a flock of starlings to an area with a nicely decorated habitat and an undecorated one.
They observed that when the Starlings were allowed to choose between the two, they chose the decorated one which is also the one they were actively chirping in. This meant that the happy effect came from pleasure inducing chemicals in the brain.
In another part of the study, the birds were given low levels of fentanyl, a narcotic used to trigger a reward feeling one gets from socializing, eating or mating. Upon exposure, the birds chriped like they were chirping when they were happy.
These birds are sure are keeping it real. Next time you enjoy a chirp session at dawn, remember that the birds are also having a session of their own.
If we start travelling towards Alpha Centauri with a rocket it would take 100,000 years to reach there which is humanly not possible for us now. So, in order to reach there much quickly project STARSHOT was founded 5 years ago in 2016 by Mark Zuckerberg, and Stephan Hawking Yuri Milner.
Right now Scientists are designing ultralight probes. Each probe is 4m wide but only a few 100 atoms thick at the center, it has a camera, processer, Battery and Transmitter which takes its overall weight to ~10 grams. A spacecraft will carry 1,000 of these probes and launch them directly into the Earth’s orbit. After that, ground based lasers will come into effect and fire 1+ gigawatt of energy into each probe for 10 minutes.
This will accelerate them to 15-20% the speed of light and the probe will begin its journey to Alpha Centauri. At 15% to 20% the speed of light probe will arrive at Alpha Centauri in 20 to 30 years and will make a close fly by to its planet. It will collect and transmit data back to earth that will take 4 years to arrive at the speed of light.
HAVE YOU EVER WOKE UP WISHING THAT YOU COULD SEE THE CLIMAX OF A DREAM?
Dreams have been considered as fascinating figments that made their way to many theories, both scientific and fantasy.
BUT, WHAT IF YOU CAN DECIDE WHAT YOU SEE IN YOUR DREAMS?
There is an old practice, which some people still follow. It is to think of good things before you sleep so that they follow into your dreams. But thanks to Scientists from MIT, not it’s possible with a piece of tech.
Remember that time when a dream felt so real, and yet you realised that were dreaming?
This rare state, when the sleeper knows that they are dreaming is called lucid dreaming. Studies have shown that sleepers can make use of this awarness to shape their dreams.
So, the Scientists have taken a leaf out of his concept and created a technology, which uses a technique called Targeted Dream Incubation (TDI). In their study, they combined a sleep-tracking device called Dormio with an app to insert certain topics in people’s dream.
TDI dominates an early sleeping stage called hypnagogia. It gives the user, targeted information in their semi-lucid stage. Thereby, it incorporates information directly to one’s thought.
The experiment on targeted dreaming involved the hand-worn sleep tracker monitoring the heart rate, hand movements, and electrical changes on the skin to identify if they have entered hypnagogia. The tracker communicates it with the app. Then the app gives audio cues.
The audio prompts were recorded by the subjects, and included commands like “remember to think of a tree”. Later, the participants recorded a journal on what they dreamt. The results showed that 67% people had dreams that involved trees, making it a success; although that were often bizarre.
HOW WOULD IT BENEFIT US?
According to lead study author Adam Horwitz, targeted dreaming could help in creative brainstorming. Dreaming has been considered beneficial to treat issues like PTSD. Further experiments can yield breakthrough results.
Snakes generally have one fully developed (right) lungs. However, some species can have 2 or 4 lungs, or a semi developed lung (left). Snakes can breath in three way,
When they are on land they can use lungs, when they are in water, they breath through gills present inside their mouth and snakes can also breath through their skin, mostly in desert area.
Snake can’t chew their food, they swallow them. Snakes have very flexible lower jaws which allow them to swallow animals who are 75% to 80% larger than their own head.
Through India has more then 250 species of snakes, only few are venomous. And among them only four species are the reason for maximum deaths. These are Spectacled Cobra, Monocled Cobra, Russell Viper and CommonKrait.
Snakes don’t have eyelid, also they do not have any external ears which make them deaf. They can hear from the vibrations on the ground.
Females of some species can store sperms inside their body for a period of 3-6 months after mating. They do so to ensure that they only give birth when there’s food available. Some snakes can survive without food for upto 2 years.
A few species of snakes such as the yellow bellied water snake can give “virgin births” where the female doesn’t need to mate with the male. They give birth through a process called parthenogenesis.
A speciality tea, known as Manohari Gold Tea, which is produced by the Manohari Tea Estatein upper Assam’s Dibrugarh district was directly sold at a record price of RS 75,000 per Kg at the Guwahati Tea Auction Centre (GTAC).
This marked the highest price at which tea has been auctioned in Assam this year. This deal is a ray of hope for Assam’s tea industry which has suffered a production loss of up to 25% Covid and floods this year.
BUT WHAT MAKES IT SO EXPENSIVE?
“Manohari Gold Tea is manufactured from the finest second flush Colonel tea buds, which are hand-plucked only at dawn. Highly rich in antioxidants, the gold tea also offers aromatic, full-bodied, bright yellowish, malty tea liquor to suit taste buds perfectly,” Guwahati Tea Auction Buyer’s Association (GTABA) secretary Dinesh Bihani, mentioned in a statement.
The rare variety of tea purchased by Guwahati-based-based tea trader Vishnu Tea company will be sold across the world giving the teeatotallers an unforgettable aroma and hopefully providing sense of calm amidst these tough times.
Grapes are rich in polyphenolic phytochemical compound resveratrol. Resveratrol is one of the powerful anti-oxidant which has been found to play a protective role against cancers of colon and prostate, coronary heart disease (CHD), degenerative nerve disease, Alzheimer’s disease and viral/fungal infections.
Resveratrol reduces stroke risk by altering the molecular mechanisms inside the blood vessels. If does so, firstly by reducing susceptibility of blood vessel damage through decreased activity of angiotensin (a systemic hormone causing blood vessel construction that would otherwise elevate blood pressure) and secondly, through increased production of the vasodilator substance, nitric oxide (a beneficial compound that causes relaxation of blood vessel).
Anthocyanins are another class of our polyphenolic anti-oxidants present abundantly in the red grapes. These phyto-chemicals have been found to have an anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, as well as anti-cancer activity.
Catechins, a type of flavonoid tannin group of anti-oxidants, found in the white/green varieties have also shown to possess these health-protective function.
In addition, the berries are very low in calories. 100g fresh grapes just provide 69 calories but zero cholesterol levels.
Grapes are rich source of micronutrient minerals like copper, iron and manganese. Copper and manganese are an essential co-factor of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Iron is especially concentrated inraisins. In addition, 100g of fresh grapes contain about 191 mg of health benefiting electrolyte, potassium.
They are an also good source of vitamin-C, vitamin-A, vitamin-K, carotenes, B- complex vitamins such as pyridoxine, riboflavin, and thiamine.
Anything which can reflect, refract or absorb the light can cast a shadow. A shadow is an area where light fall less in comparison to surrounding hence forming a shadow. Transparent objects don’t cast shadows. But
ISN’T WATER IS ALSO TRANSPARENT?
To understand this, first, we need to know what is refraction. When light enters from one medium ( like air) to another medium ( like glass or water), its direction changes. That’s known as Refraction.
That’s what happens with water, when light from the air enters the water, it gets refracted which gives us an illusion of shadow.
Another reasons is impurities present in water. Generally, water is not pure, it contains some impurities (including salt) which are not transparent, which is why water is not transparent and can make shadow.
As human beings evolved, understanding time with respect to day and night hours was one way in which organised form of living came to existence. We have 24 time zones in the world now. But, Europeans are different. They have a universally accepted practice of setting clocks when seasons change.
This decades-old tradition, called Daylight Saving (DST) is practice in which clocks are set one hour forward in the warmer months. DST helps the people living in the region to get an ‘extra’ daylight hour at the end of the day because they actually start the date early.
But, the concept cannot be supported in winter months as days are shorter than. Since countries that fall in the equatorial region do not have this discrepancy, they don’t follow it either. Although Geroge Hudson, proposed this idea in 1895, it was first implemented by Germany and Austria-Hungary only in 1916.
The 1970s energy crisis had pushed many more countries try it too as it was believed that it would keep people in good spirits as they would get more daylight hours after 9-to-5 work. The clocks go forward in the last weekend of March, and backwards in the last weekend of October.
But, the European Union is all set to abolish DST next year. The decision came after a 2018 EU poll that was conducted after the practice grew unpopular. Critics claimed it messed with the bio circadian rhythms, causing health problems in humans and livestock.
No further development has been reported ever since the voting results were announced. But, if it is implemented, 2020 would be known as the last year when the times was turned back.
A world record was made when Randy Gardener went 264 hours or 11 days straight without sleeping. He made this record at the age of 17 in 1964 and still hold it to this day.
Worst and the most probable thing that can happen if you don’t sleep for a month if death. According to experts when someone don’t sleep for a day, many hormonal changes takes place within the body, blood pressure starts increasing.
After three days your will start loosing control over body, body temperature and immunity will start decreasing and if this goes on for long, soon it be turn into fatal. Problem like diabetes, heart attack, heart failure, obesity, depression and lower sex drive can over you.
Over time it can lead to premature wrinkles and dark circles under the eyes. Lack of sleep can increase stress hormones in the body and skin will loose it smoothness. Therefore it’s always important to take a proper sleep at proper time, cause maturity is when you realize nothing is moreimportant than sleep.
Have you stayed in a pool for too long, so long that your fingers got wrinkly.
WHY DOES IT HAPPEN?
Let’s find out in detail. Some people often assume that wrinkling is the result of water entering skin. Which makes our fingers little swell up but that is completely wrong.
According to a latest research it happens due to autonomic nervous system, system that controls breathing and heart rate. As we stay in a pool of water too long nervous system sends message to blood vessels and directs them to become narrower.
As our blood vessels becomes narrower total volume of our fingertips reduces and cause loose folds of skin with wrinkles.
BUT WHY DOES IT HAPPEN UNDERWATER?
It’s easier to pick up objects with wrinkly fingers and gives us more grip.
Over the past year, Scientists worldwide have toiled day and night to find a highly effective Vaccine for COVID-19. From the ‘Viral Vector’ to the ‘Protein Subunit’, many types of vaccines are being put to use to fight the ongoing pandemic.
One of the vaccines – Oxford – Astrazeneca Vaccine – is taking help from a unique source – Chimpanzee poop!
The Vaccine, developed by the University of Oxford and its spin – off company Vaccitech, is made from an adenovirus isolated from chimp faeces that has been genetically modified so that it cannot spread in humans.
The weakened version of the common cold virus (adenovirus) causes infection in chimpanzees and contains the genetic material of the SARS-coV-2 virus spike protein that helps the novel coronavirus to enter human cells.
The surface spike protein is developed after the vaccine is injected, priming the immune system to attack the SARS-coV-2 virus if it subsequently infects the body.
The Serum Institute of India (Sll), the world’s largest vaccine producer by volume, is producing a variant of the Oxford-Astrazeneca COVID-19 vaccine known as ‘Covishield’ in India.
Cristiano Ronaldo was born in Madeira and comes from a very poor family. His early life was filled with struggles. His father was a gardener, who was an alcoholic and in 2005 died from liver failure. His mother worked as a cook and a cleaning lady so she can provide a hot meal for the family. “I was brought up with nothing, we were very poor. I had no toys and no Christmas presents. I shared a room with my brother and two sisters and my parents slept in the other.”
When Cristiano Ronaldo was playing for Sporting Lisbon, at the age of 15, his career almost ended before it began. Cristiano was diagnosed with a heart condition that unfortunately made his heart race even when he was not running or playing. He had to underwent a heart surgery the successfully fixed the problem, so finally he could run, practice and focus on the thing that was most important achieving his dream.
In 2003, Cristiano Ronaldo signed a €15 million contract and became the first Portuguese player to be part of Manchester United. After he joined the team and secured himself a future as a football star, Sir Alex Ferguson insisted on giving him the No. 7 Jersey.
In 2009, when Cristiano Ronaldo made a move from Manchester United to Real Madrid, he became that most expensive footballer in history in a transfer worth 94 million euros.
After nearly a decade, his career with Real Madrid ended, when Ronaldo signed a four-year contract with Juventus, with a transfer worth €100 million, the transfer was the highest even for a player over 30 years old.
But he like every human being had difficulties, failures and disappointments…but his incredible capability to focus, work hard and build his skills every day, made him who he is today.
Teleportation is a hypothetical way to transport something from one place to another by converting them in the form of energy which can travel at the speed of light. On reaching the destination, that energy can again converted into that something.
Let’s say we want to transfer a ball, now according to quantum physics we can’t transfer the object itself but we can send all the information about it. Things to be notes is thateverything is made up of “atoms”.
And the quantum physics every atoms has it’s own distinct properties. So these properties combined together and gave that ball it’s identify known as quantum state identify. Now if two atoms have same quantum state then they are same.
So when we want to transfer that ball, if we can send its quantum state information from one place another, and can have atoms with same information, then we can get that same ball. This is how teleportation works.
About 71% of earth is covered with water and human body contains upto 60% water. So there is a huge importance of water in our day to day life.
So there two types of water present on earth, first is drinkable and usable, this is the water we use cook, clean and drink, these are fresh water, so if we ran out of this, we won’t be able to survive on earth for more than a week.
Vegetation and animals will suffer badly. With no source of water, crops will fail and animals will die. Only those plants and animals made to survive in such harsh conditions will be able to survive, but not for to long.
As the land dry, chances of fire would increase, and this could be really worse, as we won’t be able to control that fire. This fire will spread with a very high speed resulting in many deaths. Now let’s remove second type of water, that’s ocean water.
96% of water on earth is ocean water. They play major role of providing moisture that turn into rain, which fills our lakes and rivers. So no ocean water means no rain. Also ocean water helps to main Earth’s temperature.
Ocean water absorbs lots of heat radiated from sun, so no water mean, Earth’s surface will heat up. Temperature on earth will increase suddenly and will reach an unbearable stage, mostly at equator. So in summary things won’t be good without water.
Eggs have a high satiety index, meaning they make you feel full for longer. One large egg supplies 6g of high quality protein and a large variety of essential nutrients, with the exception of vitamin C.
EGGS CAN HELP TO IRON OUT PROBLEMS:
Many people with wild iron deficiency experience vague symptoms of tiredness, headaches and irritability. Iron is the carrier of oxygen in the blood and plays an important role in immunity, energy metabolism and many other functions in the body.
EGGS IMPROVE NUTRIENT ADEQUACY OF THE DIET:
The nutrient density of eggs makes them a valuable contributor to a nutritious diet.
Eggs do not increase the blood “bad” cholesterol.
EGGS CAN HELP TO PROMOTE WEIGHT LOSS: Eggs with toast have a 50% higher satiety index than regular breakfast cereals.
EGGS HELP TO PROMOTE BRAIN HEALTH:
Choline is a nutrient that facilitates brain development in the foetus and newborn as well as memory function even into old age. Eggs are an excellent dietary source of choline, and one egg per day will provide 28% of a pregnant woman’s choline requirement.
Eggs help to prevent cataracts and to protect eye sight.
Eggs can help to protect our bones, eggs are one of the few natural food sources of vitamin D, our sunshine vitamin, vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and for maintaining optimum bone health.
Tragedies, deaths, misery. These words are dreaded by most of the people; however, the history attached to them has always sparked curiosity. This curiosity has also caused a rise in a rather unconventional type of tourism known as Dark Tourism.
BUT WHAT EXACTLY IS IT?
Dark Tourism, aka Thanatourism, is another type of tourism where tourists visit places of historic tragedies with deaths and misery linked to them. So why would someone visit place like Kala Pani in Andaman & Nicobar islands rather than enjoying the Serene beaches? Are they sadists? No one knows for sure.
Examples of historic tragedies include genocide, assassination, incarceration, ethnic cleansing, war, disasters, etc., And surprisingly these places are thronged by visitors. One reason could be the strong association of the supernatural with these places, and tourists flock in the hope of finding some signs of spirits or paranormal activities.
Another probable reason could be that people are naturally fasinated with the dark side. People want to learn about how past tragedies influenced their current world. Sometimes people may visit out of a sense of respect or exploration.
Philip stone, the executive director of the Institute for Dark Tourism Research at the University of Central Lancashire, said: “I think when we go to these places, we see not strangers, but often we seen ourselves and perhaps what we might do in those circumstances.”
An online website run by dark tourists called Dark-Tourism.com, reveals that almost 900 places in 112 countries have a ‘Dark Story’. But how ethical and safe in dark tourism? Should nations profit over historical tragedies? The answer various from person to person, but this type of tourism is seeing a huge influx.
In a 2018 Netflix documentary called Dark Tourism, journalist David Farrier visited locations with a dark past. Some of these still had radiation, reports of paranormal activity, and murders.
One of his conclusions was that people returned home feeling grateful and happy. Paradoxically, it appears people felt better than expectedafter reliving other people’s misfortunes.
Some notable places of dark tourist spots like the catacombs, 9/11 museum, Auschwitz concentration camps, Jallianwala bagh, Roopkund, etc. Are places regarded by dark tourists for the grim history they hold behind.
We all enjoy a good laugh; be it Abhishek Upmanyu’s dad jokes, Trevor Noah’s mimicry of politicians on stage or endless memes on Instagram.
BUT WERE OUR ANCESTORS CRACKING SIMILAR JOKES AS WE DO NOW?
What is the oldest joke ever? Is it still relevant? To find out the answers, a professor at the University of Wolverhampton led a team of researchers in 2008 on a quest to find the world’s oldest joke.
They spent months scanning old books and stone tablets to find evidence of humor and found that humour has been a common thread throughout history. For years, people have been using it to deal with taboo and unpleasing subjects, much like we do today.
While going through the age-old texts, the team discovered Britain’s oldest joke in a 10-th century book of Anglo-Saxon poetry: “what hangs at a man’s thigh and wants to poke the hole that it’s often poked before? Answer: A key.”
But that’s not it. After months of research, the university published a list of world’s top 10 oldest jokes. A 1600 BC gag ranked second- “How do you entertain a bored Pharaoh? You sail a boatload of young women dressed only in fishing nets down the Nile and urge the Pharaoh to go catch a fish.”
But which joke tops the list? The world’s oldest joke dates all the way back to 1990 B.C.E. in Sumeria (now southern Iraq). You might think it would be sarcastic comment or a funny take on their rulers? Well, not really. It’s a fart joke!
Translated into English, this historical piece of humour reads:
“Something which has ever occured since time immemorial; a young woman did not fart in her husbands’s lap.”
The researchers found that in the journey from ages old civilizations scribbling on walls to modern people using smartphones – one thing has never changed-fart jokes have been funny since ages.
1. if we don’t produce enough stomach acid and digestive enzymes then breaking down of proteins in meat will be difficult which will result in bloating and constipation.
2. One might see less blood sugar spikes as meat is generally lower on the glycemic Index.
3. A study shows that after consuming meat our gut microbes change rapidly. A single meet heavy diet can lead to the growth of bile-tolerant microorganisms like Bilophila Wadsworthia to grow. This is not good news for our gut.
4. Experts believe that eating meat leads to the production of an organic compound like TMAO. TMAO is associated with heart and vascular disease.
5. Experts believe that eating meat might reduce zinc deficiency and also increase our energy level.
Many microbes like bacteria and fungi in the fur of a dog. These microbes excrete waste in the form of volatile organic compound or VOCs. These VOCs are responsible for the stink.
Now usually, when the dog is dry, some VOCs evaporate into air. So, the stink or smell is hardly noticable. However, when the dog plays in water or baths, the water liberates most of the VOCs from its skin and fur into air, thus making the stink more noticeable. In addition to this, some VOCs even dissolve in water. As this water evaporates, it carries is VOCs with it, thus contributing to the stink.
Also, as the water evaporates, it increases the humidity in the air surrounding the dog. Humid air can hold are molecules. So, a higher concentration of VOCs reaches 9ur nose, thus intensifying the stink.
Ears basically help to hear. Besides this, bug ears of the elephants also help it to regulate it’s body temperature.
Now, in living beings like elephants, blood supplies heat to all parts of the, thus helping it to maintain the body temperature. However, due to metabolic activities or hot climate, sometimes heat in the blood can increase, thus increasing the body temperature of the elephant.
Now, an elephant’s big ears are filled with blood vessels which are very close to the surface of the skin. Hence, when blood having more amount of heat flows through the ears of the elephant, the heat from the blood escapes into the atmosphere cooling the blood and in turn cooling the elephant.